Yesterday, I came across the popular interview question - "What happens when you type google.com into your browser and press enter?". An attempt has been made by many such as this awesome answer by Alex and this other by Tyrrrz. This article simply attempts to offer my answer to this same question.
Several actions take place when you input "google.com" into your browser and hit Enter, and the result is the Google homepage appearing on your screen.
The Google website is first requested by your browser from the server hosting it. This request is being delivered through the Domain Name System (DNS), a directory that associates IP addresses with domain names like google.com. The DNS server then queries the Google.com IP address and transmits the results back to your browser.
Once your browser gets the IP address, it sends a new request—this time using the IP address rather than the domain name—to the server hosting the Google page. The required files are subsequently retrieved by the server and sent back to your browser.
The page appears on your screen after it has been fully rendered. Using the different Google features and search tools, you may now interact with the website.
However, this is only the tip of the iceberg. Numerous more procedures and technologies work behind the scenes to allow you to visit the Google website. For example, the server that hosts the website employs a variety of security mechanisms to guard against cyber assaults and maintain the privacy of user data. Cookies and other tracking technologies are also used on the Google homepage to tailor the user experience and collect data for analytics and advertising reasons.
Furthermore, the Google search engine indexes and ranks online sites using complicated algorithms, presenting users with the most relevant and accurate results for their queries. These algorithms are updated and refined regularly, making the search experience even more efficient and user-friendly.
In summary, typing "google.com" into your browser and clicking enter initiates a complicated chain of events involving different technologies and processes, all of which work to offer you the needed information and services.